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Dutchflowers – Indigo Blue

"Our Bubblegum clone and Oregon Funk are two key components in IB, and we are pleased to have left ubiquitous Northern Lights, Skunk and Blueberry lines completely out of its composition to produce a quintessential sweet Indica heavyweight. Indigo is indeed a violet-blue postergirl Indica type, full of power and resin, with a built-in sativa component in the high to keep its high world-class potent but not just beefheadedly stupefying. The taste of Indigo Blue is very intense, sweet berries with hashy undertones contributed by its resin coverage. The aroma is very influenced by the Bubblegum clone parent, intense “Bubblicious” chewing gum berry taste. Very dense buds, milky crystal coverage and intense sweet chewing gum smell round-up the reasons for IB's excellent bag appeal.

A very early strain, IB needs to be flowered for about 44 days (as usual, grower preference, environment and individual selected all play a role), and is a prodigious resin producer. Solid buds are borne on long yet stocky colas showing great girth and excellent calyx to leaf ratio, which from a distance look as if they were dipped in a milky-oily white substance, with violet-blue (indigo) tinges. Despite bud density and crystal production, IB has shown herself to be mold resistant. Crystal coverage is surprisingly heavy at mid-flowering (around 25 days) expressing not only on buds but on fan leaves as well, making IB a prime bubblehash producer. IB has been selected for outstanding yield, 125gr and upwards of dried bud can be expected from each plant. Bud weight makes necessary to stake IB early on to help the branches support the weight. The sticky, gooey buds pack as much punch as resin, and even when the Indica stone hits like a hammer to the head, there is a recognizable sativa streak to it, that makes it unusually clear and euphoric with remarkable floaty-visual elements."

Dutchflowers – Colombian Supremo

This F1 cross reigns Supremo in our breeding program as it is vigorous, easy to grow, tight-noded for a mostly sativa, quick flowering with a generous yield of dense, high calyx-to-leaf ratio flowers. Colombian Supremo boasts old school sweet-fruity flavor and classic sativa soaring, mind-warping high in donkey-dick colas covered in white crystals.

Colombian genetics have been at the center of DF breeding efforts for a long time, and many growers have contacted us regarding availability of Colombian-based developments, attesting to the enduring popularity this landrace earned back in the 1970s. We have worked intensively with over eight different landrace Colombian lines and crosses, to identify winning phenotypes bearing the classic Colombian mind-warping cerebral high suitable for crossing with a Mighty Haze Candy to produce the Supremo. This was not an easy task, as the Colombian landrace strains we obtained and worked with showed a wide range of highs and phenotypical expressions, from soaring to stupefying, from acid to bodily narcotic, many lanky with unsuitably long flowering.

The Supremo is the first Colombian-based cross to meet our multiple goals, both from a gardener's and smoker's perspectives. It has been heavily selected for ease of growing indoors, with a very well-behaved phenotype that remains tight-noded and friendly low stretch, thriving even under low-light indoor conditions. It is very quick to show sex, and takes an average of 55-60 days (thanks to Mighty Haze Candy influence) to produce big, dense, frosty white buds with a very pleasant sweet, fruity-piney aroma that is very smooth and lung-expanding. Long, thick colas are of the classic "donkey dick" structure, very thick and dense, with remarkably high calyx-to-leaf ratio. Very little manicure is required.

Flowers are an appealing bright lime green, but appear white from a distance due to heavy resin production. Unlike regular tropical sativa fluffy buds, most individuals exhibit dense flowering structures with very little leaf. The smoke is very smooth, with a sweet, piney-fruity spicy smell that old-timers will recognize as classic Colombian taste, even if poorly cured. The high is of throwback quality, powerfully psychoactive and nearly all-cerebral, with few body signals. The very strong mind-lifting, get-up-and-dance high avoids paranoia and stays clear and focused. This is an old-school South American sativa however, so it can bring about heart-racing and even panic for users not used to strong sativas or if overdone, due to creeper effect.

Please note Colombian Supremo is not recommended for smokers identifying "potency" only in narcotic, lowdown, body-numbing, couch-locking stones, as the Supremo's sativa-engined clear cerebral high will bring opposite results.

Dutchflowers – Venomberry

Years back, we tested a batch of seeds collected by a team member traveling in Uzbekistan, and an outstanding individual was kept of this Indica landrace, which is used primarily for hash making in its homeland. It was a very stocky, red-stemmed plant that put out chunky, powerfully narcotic buds covered in gooey resin in about 56 days.

A heavy-select Durban Fig Widow male was used as pollen donor to pump up yield and vigor —two areas in which the Uzbek landrace was found lacking— and add the sativa dimension in the process. The DFW has been an example of how, in plant breeding, the final product can be much more than just the sum of its parts: its unusual terpene signature and delta-9 dominant sativa high clearly surpass either parent with excellent yield to boot.

The resulting UDFW turned out to be a solid all-around performer, with a gifted phenotype, glossy dark green leaves and a knock-out deep, Indica high. One mother in particular stood out on its rhubarb colors, couch-lock potency and a marvelous berry-cherry taste that impressed the jaded, “taste first” connoisseurs, but put the party-oriented, sativa aficionados to sleep.

A selected Chocolate Thai landrace male had its way with our UDFW clone, and its offspring grown. Then a winning, killer potent Indica phenotype mother was selected, which we felt best represented the “venom” that was added to the berry. This especial “venomberry” specimen was backcrossed using pollen from one of her children, and then the best .75 was inbred several generations to achieve IBL status.

Venomberry IBL grows with a manageable, predominantly Indica phenotype, and shows strong reaction to increased lumens like a Sativa does. The rhubarb-colored stems are visible even in early seedlings grown indoors, and the entire plant turns into a joy of purple and red outdoors under cool weather, courtesy of the Uzbek genes. Its leaves are dark blue-green, with a plastic-like shiny texture and blades that turn inward in claw-like fashion, a trait passed on by the Thai ancestor. Over 4 ounces of krypto-green, top-shelf bud can be expected from a selected mother flowered at around 12 inches, in resinous long colas. Buds look great and smell heavenly, rounding up great bag appeal.

The smoke has great lung expansion, and is quite tasty, with pronounced sweet cherry-berry notes. Indica and Sativa backgrounds compete against each other within Venomberry fueling a really strong, abidingly intense high that grounds the body but remains up and clear in the head, with great mental energy. Venomberry is unique in that it has medicinal (lower back pain) qualities, without hangover (heavy eye lids, headache) or crashing in the end.

Dutchflowers – Green Napalm

Nepalese Temple hash is widely recognized by discriminating smokers everywhere for its unique qualities, and we have always wanted to obtain seeds to the underlying strain for use in breeding. Luckily, Nepal is not an altogether unusual tourist destination, and one visitor mailed home two sets of Nepalese cannabis seeds corresponding to distinct geographical regions. The seeds corresponding to the high-altitude Nepalese Mountain regions produced plants that immediately stood out for its manageable phenotype, early flowering and response under artificial lights, ultimately proving to be most valuable for breeding given the exotic quality of its high and distinctive taste.

The best Nepalese Mountain sativas were combined with a Mighty Candy and then selectively inbred to improve stem strength, reduce internodal distance and sativa stretch, and contribute to flower density. Inbreeding Green Nepalm for several generations has proven successful to stabilize several desirable traits, most notably a short 8 weeks flowering period and top notch bud quality. Flowers are bright lime green with orange pistils and very few leaves, but it is their crystal coverage and intriguing aroma that sets them apart.

Trichome production is remarkable, flowers and part of leaves are uniformly covered with sparkling crystals. Pondering at this resinous blanket immediately reminds that Nepalese landraces have been selected for centuries to make legendary Temple Ball charas, a pot snob’s equivalent to the very best French champagne. Incidentally, the best champagne in world is thought to be Louis Roderer’s Crystal, a name that seems to validate our analogy. Flowers have high calyx-to-leaf ratio, which is unfortunate because Temple Ball hashmaking should be mandatory for all Green Nepalm growers.

Aroma is intriguing and complex, and testers refer to flowery, spice and fruit notes to describe it. Inbreeding has not affected the wide spectrum of aromas found in Nepalese seedlings, making it exciting to ascertain each individual’s unique makeup. Most seedlings fall into three basic terpene signatures, all carrying a fruit & spice combination: strawberries / sage, pineapple / rosemary, and peach / mint. All three are uniquely tasty and sweet, with a disturbing rotten meat smell lurking in the background, but this note is only perceived by the sharpest noses. GN makes a good stealth plant, as it has very low odour when growing.

High is perceived immediately, but will creep and get stronger during the next half hour, taking the smoker progressively higher up trough several stages to a very clear final destination. A drug testing program volunteer described this final state as one of “intense lucidity,” strong, cerebral and very creative. No trace of couch lock at any point of the experience, this is a flower for the thinking, active man. Very visual, clear and inspired, it makes a good choice for musicians and anybody looking to enhance leisure and social activities, although it is too deep for daytime. A strictly recreational strain of no medical value: no body-numbing or pain-relieving effects; not an appetite inducer.

BLOWFISH (G13 / Blue Dot / Oregon Funk)F1

Named after the deadly Japanese delicatessen, this breeding project begun when we set out to improve taste and yield —two weak traits of the G-13— by using Oregon Funk as a pollen donor. The results were quite pleasing but the smoke test revealed that G-13's power had been downgraded somewhat. Then it was the turn of a very impressive Blue Dot hybrid stud, which qualified the G-13 with great taste and no harm to its potency, although this time yield was less than desired. Finally, we applied heavy selection to each of these two G-based lines, and crossed them giving rise to Blowfish, a winning combination of G-13's deadly punch and the quality and taste of the Funk and Dot lines.

Blowfish exhibits great F1 vigor and disease resistance in a well-behaved plant that avoids the undesirable traits of "blue" genetics (difficult to grow, brittle, leafy, poor calyx to leaf ratio) while maintaining the flavor of the Funk and Dot ancestors and the brain-warping power of the G-13. A prolific flower producer even under poor conditions (it actually prefers low nutrient levels), this low-maintenance strain bears wonderfully dense buds, with a thick coating of milky crystals that will rival the best of the "white" strains in both crystal coverage and brain-thumping quality, with much better flavor and yield. We are proud to offer a hybrid carrying no White Widow, Northern Lights, Skunk or Blueberry in its composition.

Parental selection focused on potency and yield, as taste and resin genes were already well fixed on the Funk and Dot lines. Outstanding ancestors infuse the plant with a high quality feel, evident in the glossy leaves, harmonious phenotype and the particularly frosted, heavy and aromatic buds. Blowfish tends to branch out while adding girth to flowering clusters, forming sizeable snowy colas for excellent yield. Despite the remarkable density of its bud structure, mold and mites have not been a problem. This fish likes plenty of water as well as appropriate root and growing space, but prefers low levels of nutrients to fully express its potential. Very well-suited for bubbler systems and SCROG styles.

Blowfish retained the breathless intensity of G-13, with much better yield and a unique taste of berries and motor grease with fuel undertones that will appeal to pot-snobs. The experienced puffer will recognize a rotten animal scent lurking in the background of this Puffer, a sign of the abiding sativa influence that was a common denominator in parental stock selection. Its buds smoke very smooth and clean, with a great berry taste and a hashy feel that relates to its impressive crystal coverage.

Known as Fugu in Japan, Blowfish flowers live up to its namesake as a lethal delicacy with a body-paralyzing yet heady cerebral effect that defies traditional "Indica" and "Sativa" classification. The plant's elegance stands in sharp contrast with the muscle and intensity of its buds, which stun the body but thrust the mind into a euphoric trippy experience with excellent visuals and duration. It does not seem to build tolerance with experienced smokers, maintaining its knock-out quality over repeated use.


Posted – July 1st, 2010
under CannaLogic
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Producing Seeds

Marijuana is naturally prolific. It has been estimated that a single male plant can produce over 500 million pollen grains 41. A large female plant can bear tens of thousands of seeds. In nature, pollen is carried from the male flowers to the stigmas of the female flowers by air currents or the wind. Indoors or out, if the plants are simply left on their own, most gardens produce many more seeds than are needed for the next crop.

Seeds usually become viable within two weeks after pollination, although they may not have developed good colour by this time. The colour can take several more weeks to develop, particularly indoors or late in the year, when the light is not as strong. Once seeds are plump, well-formed, and of a mature size, most of them will be viable. When seeds have also developed good colour, their viability should be over 90 percent.

Pollination may also be carried out artificially. Pollen can be collected and the transferred to the female flowers with a cotton swab or artist's brush, or shaken directly over the flowers. Store pollen in a clean, open container and keep in a dry area at moderate temperature. Remove any flowers or vegetative matter from the pollen, because they encourage fungal attack.

Once advantage of artificial pollination is that only the flowers on certain plants need be pollinated. This allows you to harvest most of your grass as sinsemilla, while developing seed on part of the plant. If you have only a few plants, pollinate a single branch, or perhaps only a few lower buds, in order to leaves the most potent buds seedless.

A good way to insure a thorough pollination, and to avoid contaminating other females, is to loosely tie a transparent bag containing pollen directly over individual buds, branches, or whole plants. Shake the bag to distribute the pollen and carefully remove it from several hours to a few days later.

To avoid contaminating a sinsemilla crop, you must remove any males from the garden before their flowers open. Males in pots can simply be moved to another area or room if you want to keep them growing. Male plants can complete development even in low light; so they do not need artificial light. Otherwise, the best procedure is to harvest the males intact by cutting them at their base after some flowers have formed distinct (but unopened) buds. Hang the whole plants upside down in a sheltered area where there is moderate light and where temperatures and humidity are not extreme. Place clean plates or sheet plastic beneath the plants to catch falling pollen. Generally there is enough stored water in the plant for the unopened flowers to mature and drop pollen. Well-formed flowers may open the next day. Usually all the flowers that are going to open will do so within two weeks.

Pollen gradually loses viability with time, but pollen that is about three weeks old generally has sufficient viability for good seed production. However, the age of the pollen may influence the sex ratio of the next generation.

For instance, in a 1961 study with hemp plants 97, the percentage of females in the next generation was 20 percent higher than in the control plants (natural pollination) when pollen 14 to 17 days old was used. A small increase in female-to-male ratios also occurred when pollen was fresh (six hours or less). The age of the stigmas appeared not to affect the sex ratio.

Producing Female Seeds

If it were possible to know which seeds are female and which are male, marijuana growing would be even simpler than it is. There is not practical way to discern the gender of a seed – but there is a simpler procedure for producing seeds that will all grow into female plants.

To produce feminized seeds, the plants are fertilised with pollen with male flowers that appear on a basically female plant. Such flowers appear on intersexes, reversed females, and hermaphrodites (see section 17). Female plants have an XX complement of sex chromosomes; therefore, the pollen from the male flowers that form on female plants can only carry an X chromosome. All seeds produced from flowers fertilised with this "female" pollen will thus have an XX pair of sex chromosomes, which is the female genotype.

Although the male Cannabis plant can produce female flowers, it cannot produce seed; so there is no chance of mistakenly producing seed on a male plant. It is possible to use pollen from an intersexual plant that is basically male (XY); the resulting crop of seeds will have the normal 1:1 ratio of males to females. For this reason, choose a plant that is distinctly female as a pollen source. A female plant with a few random male-flower clusters, or a female plant that has reversed sex are both good pollen sources. The seed bearer can be any female, female intersex, or reversed-female plant.

In most crops, careful inspection of all the females usually reveals a few male flowers. And often, when females are left flowering for an extended period of time, some male flowers will develop. If no male flowers form, you can help to induce male flowers on female plants by severe pruning. One such procedure is to take the bulk of the harvest, but to leave behind some green leaves to maintain growth (as described in the section on "Double Harvests" in section 20). Most of the plants will continue to form female flowers, but male flowers are also likely to form. At times, the plants may not grow particularly well, and may in fact form distorted and twisted leaves, but they will produce viable seeds as long as some stigmas were white when pollinated. (Remember, it only takes a few fertile buds to produce hundreds of seeds.) Pollinate the female flowers by hand as soon as pollen becomes available.

{Figure 82. A solitary male flower on a female plant provides "female" pollen. (Also see Figure 84 for a female reversing sex.)} {Figure 83. Growth may not be vigorous, but seeds will form if stigmas are white when pollinated.} Under artificial lights, turn the light cycle down to eight hours after cutting the plants back. The short cycle helps to induce male flowers on female plants.

Male-free seed can also be produced by pollen from a natural hermaphrodites. The progeny, however, may inherit the hermaphroditic trait, resulting in a crop with some hermaphrodites as well as females. This could be a problem if you want to grow sinsemilla the next crop.

Breeding

Breeding Cannabis is done simply by selecting certain plants to be the pollinators and the seeds bearers. Characteristics such as fast growth, early maturation, and high potency might be the reasons for choosing one plant over another. Selection can be by means of the male plants, the females, or both. A simple procedure would be to harvest all male plants, sample each for potency, and use the most potent plant for the pollen source. At harvest, compare the seeded females for potency, and use seeds from the most potent plant for the pollen source. At harvest, compare the seeded females for potency, and use seeds from the most potent plant for the following generation.

There are two basic approaches to breeding. One is inbreeding, and the other is outbreeding. Inbreeding involves starting with a single variety and crossing individuals to produce seeds. In this way, certain desirable characteristics that the parents have in common will probably be perpetuated by the offspring.

Certain variants with unusual characteristics, such as three leaves to a node instead of the usual two leaves, can be inbred continuously until all progeny carry the trait. One problem with inbreeding is that other desirable characteristics may be lost as the new population becomes more homogeneous. Inbreeding plants indoors seems to lead in a loss in potency by the fourth generation. (Preceding generations were considered comparable to the original imported grass.)

Outbreeding is crossing two different varieties. Offspring from parents of two different varieties are called hybrids. Cannabis hybrids exhibit a common phenomenon on plants called "hybrid vigour." For reasons not wholly understood, hybrids are often healthier, larger, and more vigorous than either of their parents. {Figure 84. Upper left: An old female reversing to male flowering. Lower left: Three leaves to a node (trifoliate). Upper right: A plant with three leaves to a node alternating with one leaf on next node. Lower right: Three-leafed plants sometimes split into two growing shoots.}

A reference to cannabinoid content of hybrids from crosses between chemotypes was made in a 1972 study by the Canadian Department of Agriculture: "The ratio of THC to CBD in hybrids was approximately intermediate between the parents … there was also occasionally a small but significant deviation toward one of the parents – not necessarily the one with the higher or lower ratio of THC to CBD." 51 This means that a cross between a midwestern weedy hemp (type III) and a fine Mexican marijuana (type I) would yield offspring with intermediate amounts of THC and CBD, and which hence would be considered type II plants.

Homegrowers have mentioned that inbreeding plants often led to a decrease in potency after several generation. Outbreeding maintained potency, and sometimes (some growers claimed) led to increases in potency.

One area in which breeding can be useful for homegrowers is the breeding of early-maturing plants for northern farmer. Farmers in the north should always plant several varieties of marijuana. Mexican varieties generally are the fastest to mature. Individual plants that mature early and are also satisfactorily potent are used for the seed source in next year's crop. This crop should also mature early. Some growers cross plants from homegrown seed with plants from imported seed each year. This assures a maintenance of high-potency stock.

Potency Changes Over Generations

It is well-established that plants of the P1 generation (parentals, or the first homegrown plants from imported seed) maintain their chemical characteristics. (For example, type I plants yield type I progeny whose cannabinoids are about equal both quantitatively and qualitatively to those in their native grown parents.) This fact is shown by Table 25.

In the study 66 from which Table 25 has been adapted, individual plants within varieties differed by more than four times in CBD content and by more than three times in THC content. The researchers also noted that illicit marijuana samples contained proportionately less leaf material and proportionately more stem and seed material than samples grown in Mississippi. (Mississippi samples may be more dilute.) New Hampshire and Panama samples were nearly equal in terms of the sum of THC plus CBN.

One of the questions that persists in marijuana lore is what effect if any a change in latitude has on the plant chemotype over a period of generations. Non-drug types of Cannabis usually originate above 30 degrees latitude in temperate areas. Drug types of Cannabis usually originate in tropical or semitropical areas below the 30-degree parallel. Whether this is due entirely to cultural practices is questionable. More likely, the environment (natural selection) is the prime force, and cultural practices reinforce rather than determine chemotype.

Cannabis is notorious for its adaptability. Historically, there are many statements that the drug type of Cannabis will revert to the "fibre" type when planted in temperate areas, whereas the fibre type will revert to the drug type after several generations in a tropical area. That a change in chemotype is actually caused by transfer between tropical and temperate areas has not been verified scientifically. (Such studies are ongoing in Europe.) If such changes occur, it is also not known whether the change is quantitave (the plant produces less total cannabinoids) or whether it is qualitative (succeeding generations, for example, change from being high in THC and low in CBD to being high in CBD and low in THC).

We believe that qualitative changes can occur within a few generations, but can only guess what environmental factor(s) might be responsible for such a change. Probably the change has more to do with adaption of general growth and developmental characteristics than with particular advantages that production of either CBD or THC may bestow upon the plants.

The reason we suspect a change in chemotype is that these changes occur rapidly in evolutionary terms, in a matter of several generations. This rapidity implies that some very strong selective pressure are acting on the plant populations. Also, changes in the chemotype seem to occur globally, which implies that the selective pressures responsible are globally uniform rather than local phenomena. Such globally uniform pressures might be light intensity, daylength, ambient temperatures, and the length of the growing season. For example, in populations adapting to temperate areas, those plants that are able to grow well under relatively lower light intensity and cooler temperatures, and which are able to complete development in a relatively short growing season, would be favoured over siblings with more tropical characteristics.

Cuttings

Marijuana growing often transcends the usual relationship between plant and growers. You may find yourself particularly attached to one of your plants. Cuttings offer you a way to continue the relationship long beyond the normal lifespan of one plant.

To take a cutting, use scissors or a knife to clip an active shoot about four to sic inches below the tip. Cannabis does not root easily compared to other soft-stemmed plants. Cuttings can be rooted directly in vermiculite, Jiffy-MIX, a light soil, or in a glass of water. The cutting is ready to plant when roots are about an inch long, in about three to four weeks. A transplant compound such as Rootone can be used to encourage root growth and precent fungi from forming.

Keep the mixture consistently moist but not too saturated. Roots need oxygen as well as water in order to grow. Change the water daily if the cutting are in a glass of water. Cuttings root best in moderate light, not in intense light (HID's) or direct sunlight. The best light is fluorescent set on constant light (24 hour photoperiod).

{Picture. Comparing rooting mediums. Left to right: One, roots both in and removed from rockwool cube; two, perlite; three and four, perlite vermiculture mixture; five, vermiculite; not shown: cuttings died in peat-pellets. Best rooting was in perlite-vermiculite mixture. Pure vermiculite also worked well.} Cuttings taken from the same plant are genetically identical and are clones. Clones eliminate genetic differences between individuals, and hence are particularly useful in scientific experiments. By using clones, one can attribute variations between individuals specifically to outside factors. This would be particularly useful when testing, for example, the affect of fertilisers on potency. In the 1980's, scientists finally began to use this useful tool in Cannabis experiments.

Grafting

One of the most persistent myths in marijuana lore concerns grafting Cannabis to its closest relative. Humulus, the hops plant of beer-making fame. The myth is that a hops scion (shoot or top portion of the stem) grafted to a marijuana stock (lower stem and root) will contain the active ingredients of marijuana. The beauty of such a graft is that it would be difficult to identify as marijuana and, possible, the plant would not be covered under marijuana statutes. Unfortunately, the myth is false. It is possible to successfully graft Cannabis with Humulus, but the hops portion will not contain any cannabinoids.

In 1975, the research team of Crombie and Crombie grafted hops scions on Cannabis stocks from both hemp and marijuana (Thailand) plants 205. Cannabis scions were also grafted to hops stocks. In both cases, the Cannabis portion of the graft continued to produce its characteristic amounts of cannabinoids when compared to ungrafted controls, but the hops portions of the grafts contained no cannabinoids. This experiment was well-designed and carried out. Sophisticated methods were used for detecting THC, THCV, CBD, CBC, CBN, and CBG. Yet none of these were detected in the hops portions.

The grafting myth grew out of work by H.E. Warmke, which was carried out for the government during the early 1940's in an attempt to develop hemp strains that would not contain the "undesirable" drug 58. The testing procedure for the active ingredients was crude. Small animals, such as the water flea Daphnia, were immersed in water with various concentration of acetone extracts from hemp. The strength of the drug was estimated by the number of animals killed in a given period of time. As stated by Warmke, "The Daphnia assay is not specific for the marijuana drug … once measures any and all toxic substances in hemp (or hop) leaves that are extracted with acetone, whether or not these have specific marijuana activity." Clearly it was other compounds, not cannabinoids, that were detected in these grafting experiments.

Unfortunately, this myth has caused some growers to waste a lot of time and effort in raising a worthless stash of hops leaves. It has also leg growers to some false conclusions about the plant. For instance, if the hops scion contains cannabinoids, the reasonable assumption is that the cannabinoids are being produced in the Cannabis part and translocated to the hops scion, or that the Cannabis root or stem is responsible for producing the cannabinoids precursors.

From this assumption, growers also get the idea that the resin is flowing in the plant. The myth has bolstered the ideas that cutting, splitting, or bending the stem will send the resin up the plant or prevent the resin from going down the plant. As explained in our discussion of resin glands in section 2, these ideas are erroneous. Only a small percentage of the cannabinoids are present in the internal tissues (laticiferous cells) of the plant. Almost all the cannabinoids are contained and manufactured in the resin glands, which cover the outer surfaces of the above-ground plant parts. Cannabinoids remain in the resin glands and are not translocated to other plant parts.

We have heard several claims that leaves from hops grafted on marijuana were psychoactive. Only one such case claimed to be first hand, and we never did see or smoke the material. We doubt these claims. Hops plants do have resin glands similar to those on marijuana, and many of the substances that make up the resin are common to both plants. But of several species and many varieties of hops tested with modern techniques for detecting cannabinoids, no cannabinoids have ever been detected 212.

The commercially valuable component of hops is lupulin, a mildly psychoactive substance used to make beer. To our knowledge, no other known psychoactive substances has been isolated from hops. But since these grafting claims persist, perhaps pot-heads should take a closer look at the hops plant.

Most growers who have tried grafting Cannabis and Humulus are unsuccessful. Compared to many plants, Cannabis does not take grafts easily. Most of the standard grafting techniques you've probably seen for grafting Cannabis simply don't work. For example, at the University of Mississippi, researchers failed to get one successful graft from the sixty that were attempted between Cannabis and Humulus. A method that works about 40 percent of the time is as follows. (Adapted from 205)

Start the hops plants one to two weeks before the marijuana plants. Plant the seeds within six inches of each other or start them in separate six-inch pots. The plants are ready to graft when the seedling are strong (about five and four weeks respectively) but their stem has not lost their soft texture. Make a diagonal incision about halfway through each stem at approximate the same levels (hops is a vine). Insert the cut portions into each other. Seal the graft with cellulose tape, wound string, or other standard grafting materials. In about two weeks, the graft will have taken. Then cut away the unwanted Cannabis top and the hops bottom to complete the graft. Good luck, but don't expect to get high from the hops leaves. {Smoking any plant's leaves will give a short, slight buzz.}

Polyploids

H.R. Warmke also experimented with breeding programs during the war years. Polyploid Cannabis plants were produced by treatment with the alkaloid colchicine. Colchicine interferes with normal mitosis, the process in which cells are replicated. During replication, the normal doubling of chromosomes occurs, but colchicine prevents normal separation of the chromosomes into two cells. The cell then is left twice (or more then) the normal chromosome count.

Warmke's experiments concluded that polyploids contained higher concentrations of the "active ingredient." However, the procedure for measuring that ingredient was much the same is described for grafting, with probably similar shortcomings.

Polyploid Cannabis has been found to be larger, with larger leaves and flowers. Recent experience has shown that polyploids are not necessarily higher in potency. Usually they are about equal to diploid siblings.

Colchicine is a highly poisonous substance. The simplest and safest way to induce polyploids is to soak seeds in a solution of colchicine derived from bulbs of winter or autumn crocus (Colchicum). Mash the bulbs and add an equal part of water. Strain through filter paper (or paper towels). Soak seeds in the solution and plant when they start to germinate. Cultivate as usual.

Only some of the seeds will become polyploid. Polyploid sprouts generally have thicker stems, and the leaves are often unusually shaped, with uneven-sized blades. Leaves also may contain more than the usual number of blades. As the plant grows, leaves should return to normal form, but continue to be larger and with more blades.

If no polyploids sprout, use less water in preparing the solution.

Colchicine is also a prescribed drug for treatment of gout and is taken in pill form. These usually contain .6 mg per tablet. Use 10 tablets per ounce of water, and soak the seeds as described above.

Colchicine is also sold by mail-order firms which advertise in magazines such as Head or High Times.

Because colchicine is a poison, it should be handled carefully. It is not known if plants from seeds treated with colchicine will contain a harmful amount of colchicine when plants are grown. Harm is unlikely, because the uptake by the seed is so small, and because the colchicine would be further diluted during growth, as well as diminished by smoking. But we cannot guarantee that you can safely smoke colchicine-treated plants.


 
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Genetics and Sex in Cannabis

Sex is an inherited trait in Cannabis, and can be explained in much the same terms as human sexuality can. Like a human being, Cannabis is a diploid organism: its chromosomes come in pairs. Chromosomes are microscopic structures within the cells on which the genes are aligned. Cannabis has 10 pairs of chromosomes (n=10), for a total of 20 chromosomes (2m=20).

One pair of chromosomes carries the primary genes that determine sex. These chromosomes are labelled either X or Y. Male plants have an XY pair of sex chromosomes. Females have XX. Each parent contribute one set of 10 chromosomes, which includes one sex chromosome, to the embryo. The sex chromosome carried by the female ovule can only be X. The one carried by pollen of the male plant may be either X or Y. From the pollen, the embryo has a 50/50 chance of receiving an X, likewise for Y; hance, male and female progeny appear in equal numbers (in humans, the sperm carries either an X or a Y chromosome.)

Flowering

Male Plant

Under natural light, males usually start to flower from one to four weeks before the females. Where the photoperiod is artificially controlled, as with electric lights, males respond quickly (in about a week) to a change to short photoperiods and usually show flowers sooner than the females.

Male flowers develop quickly, in about one to two weeks on a vigorous plant, not uniformly. Scattered flowers may open a week or more before and after the general flowering, extending the flowering stage to about four weeks.

The flowering stage continues to demonstrate the male's tall, relatively sparse growth. Most of the flowers develop near the top of the plant, well above the shorter females. The immature flower buds first appear at the tips of the main stem and branches. Then tiny branches sprout from the leaf axils, bearing smaller clusters of flowers. The immature male flowers are closed, usually green, and develop in tight clusters of knob-like buds. The main parts of the male flowers are five petal-like sepals which enclose the sexual organs. As each flower matures, the sepals open in a radiating pattern to reveal five pendulous anthers (stamens).

Inside the ovoid, sac-shaped anthers, pollen grains develop. Initially, pollen sifts through two pores near the top of the anther; then, starting from the pores, longitudinal slits slowly open (zipperlike) over the course of a day, releasing pollen to the wind. Once a flower sheds pollen, it shortly dies and falls from the plant. Normally, male plants begin to die one to two weeks after the bulk of their flowers have shed pollen. Healthy males may continue to flower for several more weeks, but secondary growth seldom has the vigour of initial bloom.

Female Plant

The female plant generally starts to flower later than the male, under either natural light or an artificially controlled photoperiod. Female marijuana plants flower when the average daily photoperiod is less then about 12 to 13 hours. However, some varieties and individuals may flower with a photoperiod of over 14 hours. Some Colombian varieties may not respond until the photoperiod falls below 12 hours for a period of up to three weeks.

The duration of flowering also depends on the particular rhythm of the variety, as well as growing conditions, and whether or not the plant is pollinated. Within these variables, females maintain vigorous growth and continue to rapidly form flowers for a period that ranges from 10 days to about eight weeks.

Females generally do not grow much taller during flowering. Growth emphasises a "filling out," as flower clusters develop from each leaf axil and growing tip. Normally, the flowers arise in pairs, but the pairs form tight cluster of 10 to over 100 individual flowers that are interspersed with small leaves. These clusters are the "buds" of commercial marijuana. Along the top of the main stem and vigorous branches, "buds" may form so thickly that the last foot or more of stem is completely covered. Usually the leaves that accompany the flowers tend toward simpler structure, until each leaf has one to three blades. {Figure 76. Female in full bloom.}

The visible parts of the female flower are two upraised stigmas, one-quarter to one-half inch long, usually white or cream, sometimes tinged with red, that protrude from a tiny, green, pod-shaped structure called the floral bract. This consists of modified leaves (bracts and bracteoles) which envelop the ovule or potential seed. The mature bract is a tiny structure, about 1/8 inch across and 1/4 inch long. When fertilised, a single seed begins to develop within the bract, which then swells until it is split by the mature seed.

Bracts are covered more densely with large resin glands than is any other part of the plant, and are the most potent part of the harvest. Resin glands may also be seen on the small leaves that are interspersed among the flowers.

The differences between male and female Cannabis become more apparent as the plants mature. The same can be said of the differences between varieties. Often, two varieties may appear to be similar, until they actually flowers and fill out to different forms. These appear in many ways: some varieties maintain opposite phyllotaxy with long internodes throughout flowering; bud sizes vary from about one-half inch to about three inches, with a norm of about one to two inches; buds may be tightly arranged along the stem, yielding a "cola" two feet long and four inches thick; and some varieties only form buds along their main stem and branch tips, with a few "buds" forming along the branches.

{Figure 77. Upper left: Buds form thickly into colas along the top of the main stem and branches (full bloom). Upper right: A cola about two feet long. Lower left: A huge leafy cola. Lower right: Long, slim buds form late in the year when light is weak. (these four colas are from Mexican plants.} When a female is well-pollinated, growth slows and the plant's energy goes into forming seeds and thus into the continuation of the species. Some plants (but only the more vigorous ones) will renew flowering even when pollinated. Females that are not well-pollinated continue to form flowers rapidly. This extends the normal flowering period, of 10 days to four weeks, up to eight weeks or more.

Individual flowers are pollinated by individual pollen grains. In a matter of minutes from its landing on a stigma, the pollen grain begins to grow a microscopic tube, which penetrates the stigma and reaches the awaiting ovule wrapped within the bracts. The pollen tube is a passageway for the male's genetic contributions to the formation of the embryo (seed).

The union of the male and female complements of genes completes fertilisation and initiates seed formation. The stigmas, having served their purpose, shrivel and die, turning rust or brown colour. On a vigorous female, the seeds reach maturity in about 10 days. When growing conditions are poor, the seed may take five weeks to ripen to full size and colour. Naturally, all the flowers do not form, nor are they pollinated at the same time – and there will be seeds that reach maturity weeks before others do. Although each flower must be individually fertilised to produce a seed, a single male plant can release many millions of pollen grains. A large female plant can produce over 10,000 seeds.

Sexual Variants in Cannabis

Cannabis has been studied for many years because of its unusual sexuality. Besides the normal dioecious pattern, where each plant bears exclusively male or female flowers, it is not uncommon for some plants to have both male and female flowers. These are called hermaphrodites, or monoecious plants, or intersexes. Hermaphroditic plants form normal flowers of both sexes in a wide variety of arrangements, in both random and uniform distributions.

Natural Hermaphrodites

Some hermaphrodites seem to be genetically determined (protogenous). That is, they naturally form flowers of both sexes given normal growing conditions. Possibly genes carried on the autosomes (the chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes) modify the normal sexual expression. Monoecious varieties have been developed by hemp breeders in order to ensure uniform harvests.

It is also possible that these particular are polyploid, which means they have more than the usual two sets of chromosomes. This kind of hermaphrodite may have XXY (triploid), or XXYY or XXXY (tetraploid) sex chromosomes. However, no naturally occurring polyploids have ever been verified (by observation of the chromosomes) in any population of Cannabis. Polyploids have been induced in Cannabis by using mutagens, such as the alkaloid colchicine.

Whatever then genetic explanation may be, one or more of these natural hermaphrodites may randomly appear in any garden. They are sometimes faster-maturing, have larger leaves, and are larger in overall size than their unisexual siblings. They usually form flowers of both sexes uniformly in time and distribution, and in some unusual patterns. For example, from Mexican seed, we have seen a plant on which separate flowering cluster consisted of both female and male flowers: and upper section of female flowers had upraised stigmas, and a lower section of male flowers dangled beneath the female flowers. In other plants from Mexican seed, the growing tips throughout the plant have female flowers; male flowers sprout from the leaf axils along the main stem and branches. Plants from "Thai" seed sometimes form male and female flowers on separate branches. Branches with female flowers tend to predominate, but branches having mostly male flowers are located throughout the plant.

Abnormal Flowers, Intersexes, Reversals

Gender is set in the new plant at the time of fertilisation by its inheritance of either the X or the Y chromosome from the male (staminate) plant. With germination of the seed, the environment comes into play. Heritage sets the genetic program, but the environment can influence how the program runs. (Sexual expression in Cannabis is delicately balanced between the two.) The photoperiod, for example, controls the plant's sequence of development. Also, the plant's metabolism and life processes are dependent on growing conditions. When the environment does not allow a balance to be maintained, the normal genetic program may not be followed. This is mirrored by abnormal growth or sexual expression.

{Figure 78. Upper left: Abnormal flowers. Lower left: Male flowers on a female plant. Upper right: Sexes on separate branches. Lower right: Male flower in female bud (reversing).}

Abnormal Flowers

Abnormal sexual expression includes a whole range of possibilities. Individual flowers may form abnormally, and may contain varying degrees of both male and female flower parts. For instance, a male flower may bear a stigma; or an anther may protrude from the bracts of a female flower. Abnormally formed flowers are not often seen on healthy plants, although if one looks hard enough, a few may be found in most crops. When many of the flowers are abnormal, an improper photoperiod (coupled with poor health) is the most likely cause. Abnormal flowers sometimes form on marijuana grown out of season, such as with winter or spring crops grown under natural light.

Intersexes and Reversals Much more common than abnormally formed flowers is for the plant's sex to be confused. One may find an isolated male flower or two; or there may be many clusters of male flowers on an otherwise female plant, or vice versa. These plants are called intersexes (also hermaphrodites or monoecious plants). Intersexes due to environment causes differ from natural hermaphrodite in having random distributions and proportions of male and female flowers. In more extreme cases, a plant may completely reverse sex. For example, a female may flowers normally for several weeks, then put forth new, sparse growth, typical of the male, on which male flowers develop. The complete reversal from male flowering to female flowering also happens.

All other things being equal, the potency of intersexes and reversed plants is usually less than that of normal plants. If there are reversals or intersexes, both of the sexes will usually be affected. Female plants that reverse to male flowering show the biggest decline. Not only is the grass less potent, but the amount of marijuana harvested from male flowers is negligible compared to the amount of marijuana that can be harvested from a normal female. Plants that change from male to female flowering usually increase their potency, because of the growth of female flower bracts with their higher concentration of resin. Female flowers on male plants seldom form as thickly or vigorously as on a normal female. Between the loss in potency and the loss in yield because of females changing to males, a crop from such plants is usually inferior, in both yield and potency, to one from normal plants.

Environmental Effects

Many environmental factors can cause intersexes and sexual reversals. These include photoperiod, low light intensity, applications of ultraviolet light, low temperatures, mutilation or severe pruning, nutrient imbalances or deficiencies, senescence (old age), and applications of various chemicals (see bibliography on sex determination).

The photoperiod (or time of planting using natural light) is the most important factor to consider for normal flowering. In 1931, J. Schaffner (105) showed that the percentage of hemp plants that had confused sexual characteristics depended on the time of year they were planted. Normal flowering (less than five percent of the plants are intersexes) occurred when the seeds were sown in May, June, or July, the months when the photoperiod is longest and light intensity is strongest. When planted sooner or later in the year, the percentage of intersexuals increased steadily, until about 90 percent of the plants were intersexual when planted during November or early December.

Marijuana plants need more time to develop than hemp plants at latitudes in the United States. Considering potency, size, and normal flowering, the best time to sow for the summer crop is during the month of April. Farmers in the south could start the plants as late as June and still expect fully developed plants.

If artificial light is used, the length of the photoperiod can influence sexual expression. Normal flowering, with about equal numbers of male and female plants, seems to occur when the photoperiod is from 15 to 17 hours of light for a period of three to five months. The photoperiod is then shortened to 12 hours to induce flowering. With longer photoperiods, from 18 to 24 hours a day, the ratio of males to females changes, depending on whether flowering is induced earlier or later in the plant's life. When the plants are grown with long photoperiods for six months or more, usually there are at least 10 percent more male then female plants. When flowering is induced within three months of age, more females develop. Actually, the "extra" males or females are reversed plants, but the reversals occur before the plants flower in their natural genders.

Some plants will flower normally without a cutting of the photoperiod. But more often, females will not form thick buds unless the light cycle is cut to a period of 12 hours duration. Don't make the light cycle any shorter than 12 hours, unless the females have not shown flowers after three weeks of 12-hour days. Then cut the light cycle to 11 hours. Flowers should appear in about one week.

Anytime the light cycle is cut to less than 11 hours, some intersexes or reversed plant usually develop. This fact leads to a procedure for increasing the numbers of female flowers indoors. The crops can be grown for three months under a long photoperiod (18 or more hours of light). The light cycle is then cut to 10 hours. Although the harvest is young (about five months) there will be many more female flower buds than with normal flowering. More plants will develop female flowers initially, and male plants usually reverse to females after a few weeks of flowering.

Of the other environmental factors that can affect sexual expression in Cannabis, none are as predictable as the photoperiod. Factors such as nutrients or pruning affect the plant's overall health and metabolism, and can be dealt with by two general thoughts. First, good growing conditions lead to healthy plants and normal flowering: female and male plants occur in about equal numbers, with few (if any) intersexes or reversed plants. Poor growing conditions lead to reduced health and vigour, and oftentimes to confused sex in the adult plant. Second, the age of the plants seems to influence reversals. Male plants often show female flowers when the plant is young (vigorous) during flowering. Females seven or more months old (weaker) often develop male flowers after flowering normally for a few weeks.

Anytime the plant's normal growth pattern is disrupted, normal flowering may be affected. For instance, plant propagated from cuttings sometimes reverse sex, as do those grown for more than one season.

Sexing the Plants

The female plant is more desirable than the male for marijuana cultivation. The female flowering clusters (bus) are usually the most potent parts of the harvest. Also, given room to develop, a female generally will yield twice as much marijuana as her male counterpart. More of her weight consists of top-quality buds.

Because the female yields marijuana in greater quantity and sooner you can devote your attention to nurturing the females. Where space is limited, such as in indoor gardens and small outdoor plots most growers prefer to remove the males as soon as possible, and leave all available space for the females. To harvest sinsemilla (seedless female buds), you must remove the male plants before they mature and release pollen.

Differences in the appearance of male and female Cannabis become more apparent toward maturation. During the seedling stage, gender is virtually impossible to distinguish, although in some varieties the male seedling may appear slightly taller and may develop more quickly.

We know of no way to discover gender with any certainty until each plant actually forms either pollen-bearing male flowers or seed-bearing female flowers. However, certain general characteristics may help. Using guidelines like the following, growers who are familiar with a particular variety can often predict gender fairly accurately by the middle stage of the plant's life.

Early Vegetative Growth

After the initial seedling stage, female plants generally develop more complex branching than the male. The male is usually slightly taller and less branched. (Under artificial light, the differences in height and branching are less apparent throughout growth.)

Some plants develop a marked swelling at the nodes, which is more common and pronounced on female plants.

Middle Vegetative Growth

In the second to fourth months of growth, plants commonly form a few isolated flowers long before the actual flowering stage begins. These premature flowers are most often found between the eighth and twelfth nodes on the main stem. Often they appear near each stipule (leaf spur) on several successive nodes, at a distance two to six nodes below the growing tip. These individual flowers may not develop fully and are often hard to distinguish as male or female flowers. The fuzzy white stigmas of the female flower may not appear, and the male flowers seldom opens but remains a tightly closed knob. However, the male flower differs from the female; it is raised on a tiny stalk, and the knob is symmetrical. The female flower appear stalkless and more leaflike.

The presence of premature female flowers does not assure that the plant is a female, but premature male flowers almost always indicate a male plant. Unfortunately, it is much less common for male plants to develop premature male flowers than for female flowers to appear on either plant. For example, in one garden of 25 mixed-variety plants, by age 14 weeks, 15 plants showed well-formed, premature female flowers with raised stigmas. Eight of these plants matured into females and seven became males. Only two plants showed premature male flowers and both of these developed into males. The eight remaining plants did not develop premature flowers or otherwise distinguishable organs until the actual flowering stage at the age of 21 weeks. From these eight, there were four females, three males, and one plant bearing both male and female flowers (hermaphrodite). It does seem, however, that plants bearing well-formed female flowers, on several successive node, usually turn out to be females.

Preflowering

In the week or two prior to flowering and throughout flowering, many common marijuana varieties follow two general growth patterns which depend on gender. With these varieties, you can tell gender by the spacing between the leaves (internodes). For the female, the emphasis is on compact growth. Each new leaf grows closer to the last, until the top of the plant is obscured by tightly knit leaves. The male elongates just prior to showing flowers. New growth is spaced well apart and raises the male to a taller stature. This may by the first time the male shows its classic tall, loosely arranged profile.

{Figure 79. Premature flowers are found on the main stem next to the leaf spurs. Upper left: Early female flower without stigmas. Lower left: Undifferentiated (indistinguishable). Centre: Early male flower. Upper and lower right: Well-formed female flowers on successive nodes usually indicate a female.}

Sinsemilla

Sinsemilla ((The word "sinsemilla" comes from the Spanish, and means "without seeds." It is also spelled "sansimilla.")) is any marijuana consisting of seedless female flower buds. Sinsemilla is not a variety of marijuana; it is the seedless condition that results when the female flowers are not fertilised with pollen.

In the United States, most sinsemilla comes in the form of Thai sticks that are imported from Southeast Asia and Japan. Thai sticks are made up of seedless buds wrapped around a sliver of bamboo or a long wooden matchstick. The buds, which may be on one or more stems, are secured with a hemp fibre wound around the stick. A growing amount of fine sinsemilla now comes from domestic sources, such as Hawaii and California. The grass is usually boxed or bagged with pure buds that are manicured (extraneous leaf removed). Infrequently sinsemilla comes from Mexico and, rarely, from Colombia.

Sinsemilla has a reputation as high-potency marijuana, with a sweet taste and mild smoke. It doesn't have the harsh, gagging qualities of the usual Colombian and Mexican grasses. These qualities, however, have nothing to do with sinsemilla as such. The potency of any grass depends primarily on the variety and development of the plant, and the taste and mildness of the smoke depend on the condition of the plant when harvested and the cure. Heavily seeded grass can be as mild and sweet-smoking as sinsemilla when it is properly handled.

When buying grass, remember that sinsemilla indicates a conscientious effort on the grower's part to bring you the best possible product. Sinsemilla is almost pure smoking material with no wasted weight in seeds. An ounce of sinsemilla has about twice as much smoking material as a typical seeded ounce. Also, any marijuana that is fresh, with intact buds, indicated less deterioration of cannabinoids. {Figure 80. Thai Sticks.}

Sinsemilla is becoming a preferred form of grass with homegrowers, many of whom believe that a seedless female is more potent than a seeded one, reasoning that the plant's energy goes to the production of resin rather than seed. There seem to be no scientific studies on this point. Many experienced growers believe the difference is small, perhaps 10 percent.

From observing the resin glands on the bracts, one sees that they continue to develop in size after pollination. Any difference from the unseeded state is not apparent. Whether pollination does in fact hamper or lessen resin production or potency is questionable. but the effect on the plant as a whole can be dramatic. Usually when the female is well-pollinated, growth noticeably slows, and the plant enters the last phase of life, which is seed set. Seed set is a period of incubation, in which the seeds grow and reach their mature state. New growth forms more slowly and lack the vitality of the bloom before pollination. The plant's reaction to pollination is relative. The more thoroughly pollinated the female is, the more pronounced the change in rhythm from vigorous to incubation. A plant on which only a few flowers have been fertilised continues to actively form flowers as sinsemilla.

Not all plants react alike to pollination. When the weather is good and the plant vigorous, even a well-seeded plant may bloom a second or third time before the rate of growth starts a final decline.

To put this in perspective, the main advantage to growing sinsemilla is that the plant remains in a flowering state for a longer period of time. Flowers may rapidly form for four to ten weeks. The flower buds develop larger and more thickly along the stems, yielding more top-quality grass (more buds) than in the seeded condition.

Anyone can grow sinsemilla. Simply remove the male plants before they release pollen. Given a normal spring planting, males usually flowers in August and September, but may being to flower as early as mid-July. Under artificial lights, males sometimes flower after only three months, and before the grower has shortened the photoperiod. Even though the females are not flowering, remove the males from the room before any flowers open. Indoor, the pollen will collect as dust and can fertilise the females weeks later.

Male flowers mature quickly, in about one to two weeks after the immature buds are first visible. Check each plant about twice a week to make sure you harvest all the males before any shed pollen. If you can't visit your garden consistently, then thin the garden, using the preceding section on "Sexing" as a guide. Even though you may not get all the males, the females will be more lightly seeded. Actually, even in carefully watched gardens, the females may have a few seeds. Pollination may come from on occasional male flower on a basically female plant, or a female may reverse and form male flowers. And pollen may come from a neighbour's garden, a problem that is becoming more common. But in practical terms, an occasional seed makes no difference. The female can form thousands of flowers, and when only a few are pollinated, there is little impact on the plant's growth.


 
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Adaptation: The process by which individuals (or parts of individuals), populations, or species change form or function in such a way to better survive under given environmental conditions. Also the result of this process.
Allele or Allelomorph: One of a pair or series of forms of a gene which are alternative in inheritance because they are situated at the same locus in homologous chromosomes.
Asynapsis: Failure of pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis.
Autogamy: Self-fertilization.
Avirulent: Inability of a pathogen to produce a disease on its host.
Backcross: a cross of a hybrid to either of its parents. In genetics, a cross of a heterozygote to a homozygous recessive. (See test cross)
Backcross Breeding: A system of breeding whereby recurrent backcrosses are made to one of the parents of a hybrid, accompanied by selection for a specific character or characters.
Balance: The condition in which genetic components are adjusted in proportions that give satisfactory development. Balance applies to individuals and populations.
Basic Number: The number of chromosomes in ancestral diploid ancestors of polyploids, represented by x.
Biotype: A group of individuals with the same genotype. Biotypes may be homozygous or heterozygous.
Bivalent: A pair of homologous chromosomes united in the first meiotic division.
Breeder Seed: Seed produced by the agency sponsoring a variety and used to produce foundation seed.
Breeding: The art and science of changing plants or animals genetically.
Bulk Breeding: The growing of genetically diverse populations of self-pollinated crops in a bulk plot with or without mass selection, followed by single-plant selection.
Certified Seed: Seed used for commercial crop production produced from foundation, registered, or certified seed under regulation of a legally constituted agency.
Centromere: (See kinetochore)
Character: An attribute of an organism resulting from the interaction of a gene or genes with the environment.
Chiasma: An exchange of partners between paired chromatids in the first division of meiosis.
Chromatid: One of two threadlike structures formed by the longitudinal division of a chromosome during meiotic prophase and known as a daughter chromosome during anaphase.
Chromosomes: Structural units of the nucleus which carry the genes in linear order. Chromosomes undergo a typical cycle in which their morphology changes drastically in various phases of the life cycle of the organisms.
Clone: A group of organisms descended by mitosis from a common ancestor.
Combining Ability: General, average performance of a strain in a series of crosses. Specific deviation from performance predicted on the basis of the general combining ability.
Coupling: Linked recessive alleles occur in one homologous chromosome and their dominant alternatives occur in the other chromosome. Opposed to repulsion in which one dominant and one recessive occur in each member of the pair of homologous chromosomes.
Crossing Over: The exchange of corresponding segments between chromatids of homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase. Its genetic consequence is the recombination of linked genes.
Diallel Cross, Complete: The crossing in all possible combinations of a series of genotypes.
Dihybrid: Heterozygous with respect to two genes.
Dioecious: Plants in which staminate and pistillate flowers occur on different individuals.
Diploid: An organism with two chromosomes of each kind.
Diplotene: The stage of meiosis which follows pachytene and during which the four chromatids of each bivalent move apart in two pairs but remain attached in the region of the chiasmata.
Disease: A departure from normal metabolism and a reduction of its normal potential for growth and reproduction.
Disjunction: The separation of chromosomes at anaphase.
Dominance: Intra-allelic interaction such that one allele manifests itself more or less, when heterozygous, than its alternative allele.
Donor Parent: The parent from which one or a few genes are transferred to the recurrent parent in backcross breeding.
Double Cross: A cross between two F1 hybrids.
Emasculation: Removal of the anthers from a flower.
Epistasis: Dominance of one gene over a non-allelic gene. The gene suppressed is said to be hypostatic. More generally, the term epistasis is used to describe all types of interallelic interaction whereby manifestation at any locus is affected by genetic phase at any or all loci.
Epiphytotic: An unarrested spread of a plant disease.
Expressivity: The degree of manifestation of a genetic character.
F1: The first generation of a cross.
F2: The second filial generation obtained by self-fertilization or crossing F1 individuals.
F3: Progeny obtained by self-fertilization of F2 individuals.
Factor: Same as gene.
Facultative: Parasites which can grow and live in environments other than living host tissue.
Family: A group of individuals directly related by descent from a common ancestor.
Fertility: Ability to produce viable offspring.
Fertilization: Fusion of the nuclei of male and female gametes.
Foundation Seed: Seed stock produced from breeder seed under the direct control of an agricultural experiment station. Foundation seed is the source of certified seed, either directly or through registered seed.
Gamete: Cell of meiotic origin specialized for fertilization.
Gene: The unit of inheritance. Genes are located at fixed loci in chromosomes and can exist in a series of alternative forms called alleles.
Gene Frequency: The proportion in which alternative alleles of a gene occur in a population.
Gene Interaction: Modification of gene action by a non-allelic gene or genes.
Germplasm: The sum total of the hereditary materials in a species.
Genome: A set of chromosomes corresponding to the haploid set of a species.
Genotype: The entire genetic constitution of an organism.
Haploid: A cell or organism with the gametic chromosome number (n).
Heritability: The proportion of observed variability which is due to heredity, the remainder
being due to environmental causes. More strictly, the proportion of observed variability due to the additive effects of genes.
Heterosis: Hybrid vigor such that an F1 hybrid falls outside the range of the parents with respect to some character or characters. Usually applied to size, rate of growth, or general thriftiness.
Heterozygous: Having unlike alleles at one or more corresponding loci (opposite of homozygous).
Homology of Chromosomes: Applied to whole chromosomes or parts of chromosomes which synapse or pair in meiotic prophase.
Host Resistance: The result of genetic manipulation of the host which renders it less susceptible to pathogens that would or do attack the host.
Hybrid: The product of a cross between genetically unlike parents.
I1, I2, I3… Symbols that are used to designate first, second, third, etc. inbred generations.
Inbred Line A line produced by continued inbreeding. In plant breeding, a nearly homozygous line usually originating by continued self-fertilization, accompanied by selection.
Inbreeding: The mating of individuals more closely related than individuals mating at random.
Independence: The relationship between variables when the variation of each is uninfluenced by that of others, that is, correlation of zero.
Isogenic Lines: Two or more lines differing from each other genetically at one locus only. Distinguished from clones, homozygous lines, identical twins, etc. which are identical at all loci.
Isolation: The separation of one group from another so that the mating between or among groups is prevented.
Kinetochore: Spindle attachment. A localized region in each chromosome to which the “spindle fiber” appears to be attached and which seems to determine movement of the chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis.
Line Breeding: A system of breeding in which a number of genotypes, which have been progeny tested in retrospect to some character or group of characters, are composited to form a variety.
Linkage: Association of characters in inheritance due to location of genes in proximity on the same chromosome.
Linkage Map: Map of position of genes in chromosomes determined by recombination relationships.
Linkage Value: Recombination fraction expressing the proportion of crossovers versus parental types in a progeny. The recombination fraction can vary from zero to one half.
Locus: The position occupied by a gene in a chromosome.
M1, M2, M3… Symbols used to designate first, second, third, etc. generations after treatment with a mutagenic agent.
Male Sterility: Absence or non-function of pollen in plants.
Mass-Pedigree Method: A system of breeding in which a population is propagated in mass until conditions favorable for selection to occur, after which pedigree selection is practiced.
Mass Selection: A form of a selection in which individual plants are selected and the next generation is propagated from the aggregate of their seeds.
Mating System: Any number of schemes by which individuals are assorted in pairs leading to sexual reproduction. Random; assortment of pairs is by chance. Genetic assortative mating; mating together of individuals more closely related than individuals mating at random. Genetic disassortative mating; mating together of individuals less closely related than individuals mating at random. Phenotypic assortative mating; mating individuals more alike in appearance than the average. Phenotypic disassortative mating; mating of individuals less alike in appearance than individuals mating at random.
Meiosis: A double mitosis occurring in sexual reproduction which results in production of gametes with haploid (n) chromosome number.
Metaphase: The stage of meiosis or mitosis at which the chromosomes lie on the spindle.
Mitosis: The process by which the nucleus is divided into two daughter nuclei with equivalent chromosome complements, usually accompanied by division of the cell containing the nucleus.
Modifying Genes: Genes that affect the expression of a non-allelic gene or genes.
Monoecious: Staminate and pistillate flowers born separately on the same plant.
Mutation: A sudden heritable variation in a gene or in a chromosome structure.
Obligate: Parasite that cannot multiply in nature without a host.
Oliogenic Resistance: Resistance determined by one or few genes whose effects are readily detectable.
Outcross: A cross, usually natural, to a plant of different genotype.
Pachytene: The double-thread or four strand stage of meiosis.
Parasite: Lives in or on another organism and obtains nutrients from it.
Parthenogenesis: Development of an organism from a sex cell in respect to some characteristic.
Parameter: A numerical quantity which specifies a population in respect to some characteristic.
Pathogen: A parasite which produces disease in its host.
Pedigree: A record of the ancestry of an individual, family, or strain.
Pedigree Breeding: A system of breeding in which individual plants are selected in the segregating generations from a cross on the basis of their desirability judged individually and on the basis of a pedigree record.
Penetrance: The frequency with which a gene produces a recognizable effect in the individuals which carry it.
Phenotype: Appearance of an individual as contrasted with its genetic make-up or genotype. Also, used to designate a group of individuals with similar appearance but not necessarily identical genotypes.
Phytolexins: Substances produced or formed by host plants in response to injury, physiological stimuli, infectious agents, or their products that accumulate to levels which inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Some include toxic substances produced to repel insects and nematodes.
Polycross: Open pollination of a group of genotypes (generally selected), in isolation from other compatible genotypes, in such a way as to promote random mating.
Polygenic: Determined by several genes whose effects are readily detectable.
Populations: In genetics, a community of individuals which share a common gene pool. In statistics, a hypothetical and infinitely large series of potential observations among which observations may actually constitute a sample.
Progeny Test: A test of the value of a genotype based on the performance of its offspring
produced in some definite system of mating.
Protandry: Maturation of anthers before pistils.
Protogyny: Maturation of pistils before anthers.
Pure Line: A strain homozygous at all loci, ordinarily obtained by successive self-fertilizations in plant breeding.
Qualitative Character: A character in which variation is discontinuous.
Quantitative Character: A character in which variation is continuous so that classification into discrete categories is not possible.
Random: Arrived at by chance without discrimination.
Randomization: Process of making assignments at random.
Recessive: The member of an allelic pair which is not expressed when the other (dominant) member occupies the homologous chromosome.
Reciprocal Crosses: Crosses in which the sources of the male and female gametes are reversed.
Recombination: Formation of new combinations of genes as a result of segregation in crosses between genetically different parents. Also, the rearrangement of linked genes due to crossing over.
Recurrent Parent: The parent to which successive backcrosses are made in backcross breeding.
Recurrent Selection: A method of breeding designed to concentrate favorable genes scattered among a number of individuals by selecting, each generation, among the progeny produced by matings of the selected individuals (or their selfed progeny) of the previous generation.
Registered Seed: The progeny of foundation seed normally grown to produce certified seed.
Rogue: A variation from the standard type of a variety or strain. Roguing; removal of undesirable individuals to purify a stock.
Resistance: The restriction of development of a pathenogenic agent or parasite. Can vary in degree from immunity (no development) to only slight retardation relative to a so called susceptible reaction.
S1, S2, S3… Symbols for designating first, second, third, etc. selfed generations from an ancestral plant (S0).
Segregation: Separation of paternal from maternal chromosomes at meiosis and consequent separation of genes leading to the possibility of recombination in the offspring.
Selection: In genetics, discrimination among individuals in the number of offspring contributed to the next generation. In statistics, discrimination in sampling leading to bias. Opposed to randomness.
Self-Fertilization: Fusion of male and female gametes from the same individual.
Self-Incompatibility: Genetically controlled physiological hindrance to self-fruitfulness.
Single Cross: A cross between two genotypes, usually two inbred lines, in plant breeding.
Species: The unit of taxonomic classification into which genera are subdivided. A group of similar individuals different from other similar arrays of individuals. In sexually reproducing organisms, the maximum interbred group isolated from other species by barriers of sterility or reproductive incapacity.
Strain: A group of similar individuals within a variety.
Synapsis: Conjugation at pachytene and zygotene of homologous chromosomes.
Synthetic Variety: A variety produced by crossing a number of genotypes selected for good combining ability in all possible hybrid combinations, with subsequent maintenance of the variety by open pollination.
Telophase: The last stage in cell division before the nucleus returns to a resting condition.
Tetraploid: An organism with four basic (x) sets of chromosomes.
Top Cross: A cross between a selection, line, clone, etc., and a common pollen parent which may be a variety, inbred line, single cross, etc. The common pollen parent is called the top cross or tester parent. In corn, a top cross is commonly an inbred-variety cross.
Transgressive Segregation: Appearance in segregating generations of individuals falling outside the parental range in respect to some character.
Translocation: Change in position of a segment of a chromosome to another location in the same or different chromosomes.
Variation: The occurrence of differences among individuals due to differences in their genetic composition and/or the environment in which they were raised.
Variety: A subdivision of a species. A group of individuals within a species which are distinct in form or function from other similar arrays of individuals.
Virulence: Capacity of a pathogen to incite a disease.
x: Basic number of chromosomes in a polyploid series.
X1, X2, X3… Symbols denoting first, second, third, etc. generations from and irradiated ancestral plants (X0).
Zygote: Cell formed by the union of two gametes and the individual developing from this cell.
Zygotene: A stage in meiotic prophase when the threadlike chromosomes pair.


 
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